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真実を追えないジャーナリスト

おそらく、こんな場末のブログにまで足を運んでくださる読者の方は、最近アメリカで大賑わいのダン・ラザー祭りについてはとうにご存知だろう(初耳だ、という方はこの辺りをどうぞ。なかなか面白いです)。

この一件で象徴的だったのはいわゆる「ブロガー」が大手マスコミCBSの誤報を暴き、CBSの誇るアンカーマンであるダン・ラザー氏を謝罪に追い込んだということだろう。ちなみに、ラザー氏が謝罪したという重みは久米宏氏が謝罪したのとは比べ物にならない。彼の番組はニュースステーションよりもずっと硬派な番組だし、視聴率もずっと高いはずだ(最近は知らないが)。

これで前からくすぶっていた「ブログがあればジャーナリズムは不要だ」とか、「ジャーナリストよりもブロガーの記事のほうが質が高い」とかいった議論が(少なくとも海の向こうでは)盛り上がっているようだが、今日はそのあたりを受けて「プロのジャーナリスト」の専門性とはなんなのかを考えてみたい。

プロのジャーナリストは真実を追い求めることが出来るか?

もともとこの記事の脳内原稿は随分前に完成していた。たまたま現役の記者の方がネットとジャーナリズムについて書いている「ネットは新聞を殺すのかブログ」を見かけたからなのだが、このブログで筆者にとって非常に印象的だったのは、「プロのジャーナリストは公正に、公明に、真実を追求するのだ」という強い自負だ。

もちろん、ジャーナリストの方のこのような態度は好感に値するものだ。金融業のように時折「自分が世の中に存在する社会的意義」について疑問が生じる職業についていた者からすれば(いや、意義はあると思ってますよ、もちろん)、まぶしくすらある。だが、現実問題として、マスメディアに属するプロのジャーナリストは真実を追い求めることが出来ているだろうか?

この記事を読んで下さっている読者の方々の多くはなんらかの職業を持ち、それぞれの分野でバリバリと働いてらっしゃるのだと思う。そして毎日の出勤途中に日経新聞あたりに目を通す方も多いだろう。そこで自分の専門分野についての記事を読んで感心したことがあるだろうか。働き始めて1~3年もすれば、学生時代は難解で読むのが億劫だった日経新聞に実は大したことが書いてないという事実に気がついてしまうのではないだろうか。業界で何年もキャリアを積んだ人間から見れば、記者は多くの場合素人でしかない。

筆者の経験から言えば、日経新聞の金融欄に感心した事は余りない。マーケットのミクロな動きをむりやり「景気後退観測が持ち上がったため~」などという後付けのマクロな理由で説明しようとするのは日常茶飯事だし、それ以外の情報も金融ファクシミリ新聞(業界紙のようなもの)やブルームバーグ(総合情報端末)から2日以上遅れることが少なくない。ちなみに、読売や朝日は日経から更に1日遅れたりする(速報性の有無はここでの趣旨とは関係ないが)。たまに日銀の動きをすっぱ抜いたりして慌てさせてくれるのだが、結構な確率で誤報だったりもする(←根に持ってます)。

ただし、これが専門紙の日経金融新聞あたりになると、ぐっと読み応えのある記事が増える。新米アナリストが敗北感を覚えるようないい記事を目にすることもある。もちろん、筆者もそういう記事を書く記者を素人呼ばわりするつもりはない。

マスメディアは分かりやすくなければならない

多くの場合、世の中の真実を正確に、客観的に伝える事は難しい。世の中は残念ながら複雑なものだし、ものの見方は色々だ。ある視点からは真実だと思えることが、別の視点から見るとまるで間違っている事は良くある。

また、真実に近づくためにある程度の専門知識が要求されることも多い。このブログの事実上のメインコンテンツである「金融政策論議の不思議」は、最初経済学に触れたことのない方でも読めるように心がけて書き始めたのだが、途中からどんどんややこしくなり、Bewaad氏との議論が始まった辺りから更に経済学と金融の専門用語が増えている。それでも読み続けてくださっている読者の方々にはいくら感謝しても足りないのだが、議論を深めるためにどうしても必要な知識はやはりあるのだ。

つまり、真実をありのままに正確に伝えるには読者にそれなりの時間と、予備知識と、ひとつひとつのロジックを読み解く忍耐力を要求する。そして、多くの場合読者はそこまでして「真実」を知ろうとは思っていない。そんな余裕があったら本業に集中したいのだ。警察の方々であれば社会欄の正確さ・公正さは気になっても金融欄について筆者がくさしたようなことにはまるで興味がないだろうし、逆に筆者は社会欄の見出しだけ読んで分かった気になっていることが多い。大多数の読者は金融欄に大して注意を払っていないし、それはどの分野にも言えることだ。

だから、マスメディアの記事は分かりやすくなければならない。更に突っ込んで書けば、マスメディアの記事で重要なのは読者に「分かった気になってもらう」「その問題を理解したという満足感を味わってもらう」ことであって、真実を追求することではない。真実を追求すればそれだけ記事は読みにくくなり、読者は離れてしまうからだ。

ブログであれば、はなから読者層は限定できるし、読者が離れていっても寂しい思いをするだけで耐える事は出来る。ただ、プロであるためには商業的に成立していなければならない以上、読者層をある程度以上には限定できないのだ。だから、プロのジャーナリストは分かりやすさを犠牲にして真実を追い求める事は許されない。

プロのジャーナリストは正確な記事を書けない

一方で、「分かりやすい」記事は、それだけ正確さを犠牲にしている。もしかしたらその分かりやすい記事はある真実をついているかもしれない。ただ同時に別の側面から見た真実を無視しているだろう。分かりやすくする為にはそれだけ情報量を削らねばならないのだから、それはしょうがない。

また、分かりやすい記事を書く記者が仕入れた情報は客観性がない。確かに、記者が足を使って仕入れた情報は貴重だ。だが、分かりやすい記事を効率よく書くためには、最初からある程度ストーリーを決めて情報を集めなければならない。だからいくら記者が足を使って集めた一次情報でも、その情報は最初から客観性がない。または、ストーリーと整合しない情報は切り捨てられるので、客観性がないといっても良い。


つまり、プロのジャーナリストである限り、真実に近い正確な記事を書く事は出来ない。ニュースステーションを思い出して欲しい。あの番組の最初のコンセプトは「分かりやすい報道」であったはずだ。確かに、あの番組は分かり易かった。同時に、偏向報道で真っ先に槍玉に上がったのもあの番組なのだ。

さて、長々とマスメディアの本質について書いてきたが、別に筆者は「もうマスメディアの時代は終わりだぜ」とか、「やっぱりこれからはブログがマスメディアに取って代わるんだ」とか思っているわけではない。マスメディアにはマスメディアの存在意義があり、それは今後も変わらない。その辺りの話は次回


本日のまとめ

プロのジャーナリストは素人にも分かりやすい記事を書かなければならない。

だから、素人視点こそがプロのジャーナリストの専門性と言えるかもしれない。

分かりやすい記事と正確で客観的な記事は両立しない。

プロのジャーナリズムは、多くの読者の無関心の上に成立している。

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Comments

こんにちは~馬車馬さん。

読み手と書き手の意識の乖離をすべて埋めることはできないですね。
選択はジャーナリストの質ではなくて、読み手の質に委ねられる、と言う事ですかね・・・ん?当然の事ですね。スミマセン。

私も無知蒙昧なりに日々精進せねばいけません。(笑い)

p.s. むなぐるまさんのblogも、とても秀逸ですね。
   いや~良いblogを紹介して頂きました。

Posted by: 次郎 | September 25, 2004 at 03:56 PM

はじめまして。Giraudと申します。
いつも読ませて頂いております。
金融関連記事は正直、理解出来ていないのですが、触れていれば断片的にも理解が進むのではないかと妄想しつつ見ています。

今回は、トラックバックさせて頂きました。

全くの門外漢ですが、今後とも宜しくお願いいたします。

Posted by: Giraud | September 26, 2004 at 01:26 AM

次郎さん、こんにちは。

まぁ、読み手の質というのはおっしゃるとおりだと思うのですが、我々が突然ものすごく優秀になれたとしても、やっぱり社会欄や文化欄には無関心でい続けるのでしょうから、このあたりの構造は変わりようがないのかなぁと。

お互いブログを持つもの同士、マスメディアの追えない真実へ近づくべく頑張りましょう(笑)。

Posted by: 馬車馬 | September 26, 2004 at 06:39 AM

Giraudさん、コメント&TB有難うございます。

ややこしいブログですいません。分かり易く、かつシンプルに書きたい事を書くのが理想なのですが、全然うまくいっておりませんで・・・今後も精進していくつもりですのでよろしくお願いします。

Giraudさんのブログも拝見させていただきました。ニュースの取り上げ方にひと捻りあって面白いですね。これからちょくちょく寄らせていただきます。

Posted by: 馬車馬 | September 26, 2004 at 07:26 AM

真実を徹底的に追究したうえで、
わかりやすく伝える。
…というのが理想だとおもいます。
真実の追究ばかりをしていると、伝わらなくなってしまう。
わかりやすさの追求ばかりをしていると、真実から遠ざかってしまう。
この狭間でもがき続けるのがジャーナリストではないかと。
真実を追究するってのはインプットで、そのままをアウトプットするわけではないので。
(もしそうだとしたらあまり芸がない)

Posted by: fratdrive | September 27, 2004 at 06:55 PM

flatdriveさん、コメント有難うございます。

真実を追求した上で分かり易く、というのが理想だというのは全くおっしゃるとおりだと思います。

しかし、Giraudさんへのコメントでも書いたのですが、理想を追う事は必ずしも義務ではないと思うのです。彼らもサラリーマンです。理想を追求するためにはプライベートの楽しみも削らなければならない。我々消費者は彼らにそこまでを求める事は出来ないと思うのです。

プロとしての最低限が出来ていなければ批判は当然ですが、ジャーナリストのプロの最低限は判りやすく書くことにあって、真実の追求は副次的な要素ではないか、というのが「それでもジャーナリストは必要だ」で書いた趣旨な訳です。

もちろん、「芸がない」と思われるflatdriveさんのお気持ちは良く分かりますし、私も共感します。ただ、そこはむしろいい仕事をしたジャーナリストを評価する方向で行くべくではないのかなと。

まぁ、こういう考え方はある意味ジャーナリストの方々が持っているプライドを根っこから否定する考え方でもあるので、その意味ではflatdriveさんよりも私はジャーナリストに対して厳しい見方をしているわけなんですが・・・

Posted by: 馬車馬 | September 28, 2004 at 10:22 AM

もともとジャーナリストに過大な期待をしないで、たまにいい仕事が出来れば、それを評価すると。まあ出来の悪い子どもみたいなもんですね。(「ほんとにまったくこの子はしょうがないんだからー」という感じで)
情報の受け手とか、取材を受ける側としては、まったく正しいと思います。ジャーナリストを含めて、情報を送る側に対しては、常に厳しい視線を向けるのが、互いのメリットにつながると思います。
でも、似たような仕事をしている立場だと、それとはまた違うことを感じたりしてしまうわけです。
(私はジャーナリストではありませんが)

Posted by: fratdrive | September 28, 2004 at 12:04 PM

flatdriveさん:

なるほど、情報の送り手側で働いていらっしゃるのですね。それであれば、自ずとジャーナリストの働き方に対して違う立ち位置になるのだと思います。

出来の悪い子、と言ってしまうと、どの業界だって「出来の悪い子」の方が多いと思うのです。私自身、自分の仕事振りが完璧から程遠い事は自覚していますから、高い志を持つ人からは「出来が悪い」と思われている可能性が大だと思いますし。

Posted by: 馬車馬 | September 28, 2004 at 05:53 PM

あ、書き忘れてましたが、flatdriveさんのおっしゃるとおり、どちらにしても不勉強で無知をさらけ出した記事とその記者には厳しく突っ込んであげるのがやさしさだと思います。日本の消費者の厳しさは世界随一ですし、それが日本のサービス業を鍛えたのですから、同じことがマスコミでも起こればいいなと。

ただ、その辺りはジャーナリスト全体の問題ではなく、個々の記者の質の問題としてミクロに取り扱った方が生産的かな、と考えています。

Posted by: 馬車馬 | September 29, 2004 at 04:31 AM

うーん。私の意見はこうです。

1.ジャーナリストは勉強熱心でよく知っていればいいというものではない、と思います。不勉強で無知な記者をかばうわけではありません。ちょっと表現が悪いですが「専門バカ」では、業界ウケする記事しか書けないと思うのです。業界紙はそれでOKですが、一般紙ならNGでは。不特定多数の読者や視聴者が情報の受け手であるマスメディアにおいては、たとえば、ある業界で起こっている事柄が、社会全体的にどんな意味を持つのかとか、そういう視点がないと、意味がないと思います。専門家顔負けの情報を持ち、シロウトの視点で切り込んでいくというのが最高です。

2.ジャーナリストを甘やかしてきたのはおそらく読者でありまして、つまりジャーナリストの弱体化(←こう言ってしまいましょう、弱体化してます)は構造的な問題なので、個々の質(志や能力)ではなくて、構造的に変わっていかないと駄目かもと思っています。

あるジャーナリストの方のオンライン日記をご紹介します。ジャーナリズムについても時々かなり突っ込んで書いてます。
http://162.teacup.com/sinopy/bbs

Posted by: fratdrive | September 29, 2004 at 07:36 PM

flatdriveさん、すいません、コメントが遅れました。

1点目に関してですが、TBを下さったジャーナリズム考現学さんの「記者は『不勉強』か?」が面白い視点を提供してくださっていると思います。

2点目ですが、構造的な問題があるという点には私も賛成です。そして、本文中で私は、究極的には読者の無関心と「他人と情報を共有したい」という欲求こそがジャーナリズムの構造問題だと考えたわけです。これは根本的な問題であって、解決は難しいでしょう。

だからこそ、「真実を追求する事はジャーナリストの使命ではない」「いわゆるダメジャーナリストに対してはミクロに対処するしかない」と考えたわけなのです。

ホームページのご紹介有難うございます。少しいまテンパってますので、週末にゆっくり読みたいと思います。

Posted by: 馬車馬 | September 30, 2004 at 07:19 PM

テンパっている合間のコメント、ありがとうございます。
ジャーナリズム考現学さんの「記者は『不勉強』か?」、読ませていただきました。不謹慎かもしれませんが、爆笑させていただきました。それだけツボにハマったということでしょうか。
んーと、ぼくはジャーナリストの社会的使命はもうだいたい終わってると思っています。
記者クラブとか支局とか、大手マスメディアが築き上げてきたニュースネットワークは残るでしょうが、そこにジャーナリストの存在意義はあるでしょうか。効率的なメディアとして存在すればいい、と思っています。
ジャーナリストは現場に行くべし。現場で真実を追うべし。そう思います。ですが、いまや、現場から普通のひとびとが真実を発信できる時代です。デスク役は相変わらず必要でしょうけれども、現場記者の需要は以前ほど高くないはずです。ダメジャーナリストは淘汰されていくでしょう。
ジャーナリストが活躍できる範囲は狭められている、と思います。ジャーナリズムは追いつめられているといえるかもしれません。
かつてテレビの黎明期、地方にロケに行くと、「テレビ?何それ?」と相手にされなかったとか。映画全盛の時代です。ラジオからテレビへの異動が、降格人事だと受け止められた時代です。映画よりもラジオよりも格下の、海のものとも山のものともわからないテレビという世界で四苦八苦してきた先人の苦労を思うと、いまブログ界で頑張っている方々の姿がダブります。
いずれジャーナリズムは、今とは似て非なるものになるような気がします(←どっかで読んだなー)。

Posted by: fratdrive | September 30, 2004 at 11:35 PM

こちらこそTBありがとうございました。個人的なことですが、私が気をつけているのは相手へのリスペクトの気持ちと「無知の知」です。専門家は記者よりもずっとその問題に詳しいわけですが、失礼のないように少しはその問題や業界のことを調べていきます。
fratdriveさんの「ダメジャーナリストは淘汰されていく」との言葉、現役(自分を紹介するときは恥ずかしくてジャーナリストとは言えないので、マスコミと言ってます)にとっては辛いですが、その通りです。私も淘汰されていく、というかもう淘汰されているのだろうな~と遠い目になってしまいました。

Posted by: ガ島通信 | October 03, 2004 at 07:00 PM

flatdriveさん、コメントが遅れてごめんなさい。

将来のジャーナリズムが今とは異なる姿になるだろうという点には大いに賛成です。その姿がどうなるのかに思いを馳せるのはなかなか楽しいですよね。

私ももう少し色々考えてからまた書いてみようと思います。(ちょっと他のネタが溜まってしまっているので、しばらくは無理そうですが・・・)

Posted by: 馬車馬 | October 05, 2004 at 07:43 AM

ガ島通信さん、コメント有難うございます。

無知の知というのは難しいものですよね。専門家とは自分が何を知らないかを知っている人間のことだ、とはよく言われる話ですが、私も専門外のこのジャーナリズムの記事で、無知の知の精神を保てた自信はありません。というより、あんまり謙虚な議論の仕方してないですね。

淘汰をそれほど恐れる事はないのだと思います。ダメアナリストも、ダメトレーダーも、ダメセールスマンも数年もすれば淘汰されていきます。どこでも当たり前に起こっていることですから、別に黒船来航のようなインパクトはないのではないでしょうか。

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以前にジャーナリストはそのブログで評価すべし、と言う記事を読んでいましたが、その意味が良く解りませんでした。 ゆびとまさんのジャーナリスト?(その1)やネットは... [Read More]

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朝日新聞記者が道交法違反で罰金を受けたことで3ヶ月の停職となりました。 朝日の記事によると、夜間通行禁止の道路を自動車で走り、警察官の取締りを受け、その際「記事... [Read More]

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なぜイラク戦争は反対か。日頃は漠然とした思いからそれほど深く掘り下げていないが、死に直面して初めて命の重みと一瞬にして奪われる軽さを知る。香田証生の死は空しく思... [Read More]

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